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Composting is a sustainable and eco-friendly way to recycle garden waste, turning it into nutrient-rich organic matter that enhances soil fertility and promotes healthy plant growth. Making your own compost is a straightforward and rewarding process that not only reduces waste but also contributes to a more sustainable and thriving garden. In this guide, we’ll walk through the steps of creating your own compost, also known as “black gold.”

1. Choose a Compost Bin or Pile:

Start by selecting a suitable container or space for your compost. You can use a compost bin, which is designed to contain and accelerate the composting process, or simply create a compost pile in a designated area of your garden. Ensure good aeration and drainage in your chosen setup.

2. Collect Green and Brown Materials:

Composting is a balance of “green” and “brown” materials. Green materials include kitchen scraps like fruit and vegetable peels, coffee grounds, and fresh garden waste like lawn clippings. Brown materials consist of dry materials such as leaves, straw, shredded newspaper, cardboard, sawdust or wood chips. Aim for a mix of approximately 50% green and 50% brown materials.

3. Avoid Certain Materials:

While many organic materials can be composted, some items should be avoided. Do not include meat, dairy, or oily food scraps in your compost, as they can attract pests and slow down the decomposition process. Additionally, avoid adding pet waste or weeds that have gone to seed to prevent the spread of diseases and unwanted plants.

4. Chop or Shred Large Items:

To accelerate the composting process, chop or shred larger items like branches, stems, or cardboard into smaller pieces. This increases the surface area available for microbial activity and speeds up decomposition. The smaller the particles, the faster they will break down.

5. Layer Your Materials:

For optimal composting, layer your green and brown materials. Start with a layer of brown materials, followed by a layer of green materials, and continue this pattern. This layering promotes aeration and helps maintain a good balance of carbon and nitrogen, crucial for effective composting.

6. Add Water:

Keep your compost moist but not waterlogged. If your compost pile is too dry, add water to ensure that the microorganisms responsible for decomposition are active. Conversely, if it’s too wet, add more brown materials to improve aeration and absorb excess moisture.

7. Turn the Compost Regularly:

The jury is out on this one, but some people believe that turning or mixing your compost helps distribute moisture and air, preventing the formation of compacted or anaerobic zones. Regular turning can also accelerate decomposition by introducing fresh materials to the centre of the compost pile, where microbial activity is most vigorous. Turning is not essential though as long as you have the right mix of green and brown materials. Experiment and find out whether regular turning works for you.

8. Patience and Monitoring:

Composting is a natural process that takes time. Be patient and monitor your compost regularly. You should start noticing changes in the texture, color, and smell of your compost as it progresses. Finished compost typically has a dark, crumbly texture and a earthy, pleasant smell. It can be quite good fun to check the temperature in the middle of the compost heap as the chemical reactions can generate significant heat. If your compost pile is hot, it’s working!

9. Harvest Your Compost:

Once your compost is dark and rich, it’s ready to be harvested. Depending on your composting method, this may involve sifting out larger particles and placing them back onto the heap or simply moving finished compost to the side to access the fresher material underneath.

10. Use Your Compost:

The final and most rewarding step is incorporating your finished compost into your garden soil. Spread a layer of compost around your plants, mix it into your garden beds, or use it as a top dressing for your lawn. The nutrients and organic matter in the compost will improve soil structure, water retention, and provide essential elements for plant growth.

Tips for Success:

  • Balanced Mix: Aim for a balance of green and brown materials to ensure proper decomposition.
  • Size Matters: Chop or shred larger items to speed up the composting process.
  • Aeration is Key: Regular turning or mixing promotes aeration, essential for composting.
  • Keep It Moist: Maintain adequate moisture levels for microbial activity without waterlogging.
  • Avoid Pests: Cover your compost or use a bin to deter pests and rodents.
  • Diversify Your Inputs: Include a variety of materials for a well-rounded nutrient profile in your compost.


Creating your own compost is an empowering and sustainable way to contribute to both environmental conservation and the health of your garden. By following these simple steps and embracing the natural process of composting, you’ll transform kitchen and garden waste into a valuable resource, enriching your soil and fostering a greener, more vibrant outdoor space.

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